Sponsored Projects Administration groups the projects it administers into four categories: Research, Instruction, Public Service and Outreach, and Cooperative Extension.
SPA categorizes a sponsored project on the basis of its actual activities or scope of work (SOW) — not its physical site or its budgetary unit code. Funds related to any of these four types of projects may be received pursuant to grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements from federal, state, or local government agencies, nongovernmental agencies, or individuals. In general, these funds are managed from restricted accounts because the funds are restricted by donors or sponsors as to the specific purpose, program, or department for which they may be expended.
Original and diligent inquiry, examination, or investigation undertaken in order to understand “the nature of things”; its intent is to expand the scientific knowledge base through systematic observation. Broadly defined, research includes the invention and generation of ideas, images, performances, artifacts (including design) where these lead to new or substantially improved insights, materials, devices, products, and processes. Research excludes routine testing and routine analysis of materials, components, and processes, as well as the development of teaching materials that do not embody original research.
- Basic Research– Theoretical or experimental work undertaken primarily to acquire truth, knowledge, or improve theoretical understanding regarding the nature of things without any particular application or practical use in mind or without an eye toward its commercial value.
- Applied Research – Original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge that is directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective or towards improving the human condition. May have commercial value.
- Clinical Research – NIH has adopted a three-part definition: 1) Patient-oriented investigations during which the investigator interacts directly with subjects to understand the mechanisms, etiology, and pathogenesis of disease; evaluate therapeutic interventions; or develop new technologies, drugs, or devices. 2) Epidemiologic and behavioral studies. 3) Outcomes research and health services research. Excluded from this definition are in vitro studies that utilize human tissues but do not require the investigator to deal directly with patients. At UGA, patient-oriented projects include both humans and animals. Clinical Trials (defined below) are a type of Clinical Research. Research on animals in the Teaching Hospital of the College of Veterinary Medicine is considered Clinical Research unless the protocol meets the strict definition of a Clinical Trial.
- Patient-oriented Research – Research conducted with human subjects (or on material of human origin such as tissues, specimens, and cognitive phenomena) for which an investigator directly interacts with human subjects. This area of research includes the development of new technologies, mechanisms of human disease, therapeutic interventions, disease control, and clinical trials. Investigators must have direct interaction with human subjects and relate the research results to the patient status or outcome.
- Epidemiologic and Behavioral Studies– The investigation of the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for disease. Often utilize longitudinal study methodology, retrospective assessments, and/or surveys comparing different populations that have been exposed to different risk factors and/or behavior. These studies help to identify potential risk factors that may have an association with an outcome.
- Outcome and Health Services Research – This research is similar to, but departs from, the previous types of research in that it aims to examine the outcomes resulting from different types of approaches and methodology of health services on patient populations.
- Clinical Trial– A carefully designed and rigorously controlled study or series of studies (usually done in four phases) to provide extensive data that will allow for statistically valid evaluation of the safety and efficacy and therapeutic benefit(s) of drugs, devices, treatments, or other preventive measures and use human volunteers or animals as subjects. The activity is typically carried out in a controlled environment in a clinic or other medical facility, and the protocol used is typically developed by the sponsor.
- Proprietary Testing– Non-investigator initiated research activities driven by a sponsor’s specific protocol, know-how, or intellectual property for which no inventions are expected to result and no publications are expected to be produced as outcomes. Sometimes the term “work for hire” is used interchangeably. A Clinical Trial may be a type of Proprietary Testing activity.
Activities delivered as part of an institution’s instruction program, which include credit and noncredit course preparation and grading; teaching and training activities; activities that provide basic knowledge or skills that are required prior to undertaking formal academic course work; or course and curriculum improvement activities.
Academic, non-instructional services that translate and transfer UGA’s intellectual and professional knowledge, expertise, and resources into the public realm for practical purposes designed to meet quality-of-life needs of a changing society. These services include conferences, institutes, general advisory services, reference bureaus, radio and television, consulting, and similar non-instructional services to particular sectors of the community.
Activities delivered through a network of on-campus and local Extension offices through educators that transfer knowledge from the land grant university in the form of “know-how” for the large majority of the population to help people improve their lives.